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国际货币基 金组织 总裁在韩国金融界女性 网的主旨演讲

 Together, Korea’s Women and Economy Can Soar

齐心协力,韩国女 性和经济可以比翼齐飞


– Keynote Speech to Korean Network of Women in Finance

——在韩国金融界女性 网的主旨演讲


Christine Lagarde, Managing Director, International Monetary Fund

国际货币基 金组织总裁  克里斯蒂娜 ·拉加德


September 5, 2017



Prime Minister, Ministers, distinguished guests – Anyoung haseyo. It is my honor to address the International Conference on Women’s Empowerment in Financial Services. 


总理先生,部长们 ,各位嘉宾,Anyoung haseyo。能够在金融服务 的女性赋权国际大会上讲话,我深感荣幸。


Thank you – Sang-Kyung Kim and the Korean Network of Women in Finance – for your warm welcome. Your goal to promote gender diversity in the financial sector is critical. 


我感谢Sang-Kyung Kim 和韩国金融界女性 网的热烈欢迎。你们在金融业促进性别多样化的目标至关重要。 


Indeed, empowering women is not just the right moral choice; it is also the right macroeconomic choice. That is why many of us care – including the IMF. Helping women participate in the economy boosts growth, diversifies economies, reduces income inequality, and mitigates demographic change. 


实际上,赋予女性 权能不仅是道义上的正确选择,也是宏观经济上的正确选择。正因如此,才有包括基金组织在内的许多人关心这项工作。通过帮助女性参与经济,将促进经济增长,提高经济多样性,减少收入不平等和减缓人口变化。 


These factors are relevant across the globe – but especially here in Korea. 


这些问题在全球范 围内都很重要,但在韩国尤其如此。


Think, in particular, about growth. For the last five years, the working-age population increased by 200,000 every year, boosting growth by 0.7 percentage points. Over the next five years, the workforce will shrink by 100,000 a year, subtracting 0.2 percentage points from growth. Enabling more women to work can dramatically alleviate the adverse effects of demographic change. 


特别是,让我们想 一想增长的问题。过去五年,工作年龄人口每年增加20万,使增长率提高 0.7个百分点。今后五 年,工作人口将每年减少10万,使增长率降低 0.2个百分点。如果让 更多女性参加工作,就可以大大缓解人口变化的不利影响。 


There has never been a more critical time for Korea to invest in women. This challenge is the focus of my remarks. 


对于韩国而言,现 在对女性进行投资,比以往任何时候都更为关键。我的讲话将重点关注这项挑战: 


First, despite progress, further actions are needed – by government and society – to help women participate in the economy; 


•首先,尽管已经取 得了进展,但政府和社会都仍需采取更多行动,帮助女性参与经济; 


Second, from the corporate perspective, more ambitious steps are required to harness the substantial dividends from having more women in senior positions. 


•第二,从企业角度 来看,需要采取更加大胆的措施,让更多女性升任高级职位,以从中获取重大好处; 


1. Empowering Women in Korea’s Economy 

1、韩国经济中的女 性赋权 


Let me start with Korea’s progress. The proportion of women in the workforce – the female labor force participation rate – has increased from 46 percent in 1980 to 58 percent in 2016. Between 1990 and 2010, the share of women in regular jobs rose from 20 to 40 percent.  


我首先谈一下韩国 取得的进展。女性在工作人口中的比重,即女性的劳动力参与率,已从1980年的46%上升到了2016年的58%。1990年至2010年期间,女性在正 规就业人数中的比重从20%增加到40%。 


On the global stage, many Korean women are shining – figure-skaters; musicians; golfers like Park Sung-hyun, recent champion of the U.S. Women’s Open. 


全球舞台上有着很 多光彩耀人的韩国女性,包括花样滑冰选手、音乐家和最近赢得美国女子公开赛冠军的朴成炫这样的高尔夫球员。 


Yet, Korea still has one of the lowest rates of female labor force participation in the OECD – 20 percentage points below the best performers. Women are paid about 37 percent less than men. Females take up just 2 percent of senior management positions – compared to the OECD average of 20 percent. 


然而,韩国女性的 劳动力参与率仍然属于经合组织国家中最低之列,比表现最好的国家低20个百分点。女性的 薪酬比男性低大约37%。女性在高管职位 中的比率仅为2%,相比之下,经合 组织的平均水平是20%。 


With many women leaving the workforce in their 30s to have families, they typically miss a decade or more of prime working life. Re-entering the workforce is a challenge. For those who do, opportunities can be limited. Many take non-regular jobs, or never reach the next rung on the career ladder. 


很多女性在三十几 岁时便不再工作,她们成立家庭,因此错过了10年甚至更长的最好 的工作时间。重新参与工作并不容易。而对那些再次寻求工作的女性来说,机会可能有限。很多人是非正规就业,或职位永远升不上去。 


I. Policies 



The good news is that steps are being taken to remove these barriers. As the Korean proverb goes: “Beginning is half the task.” 


好消息是,当局正 在采取措施消除这些障碍。正如韩国谚语说的那样,“好的开头是成功的 一半”。 


Korea has had legally-compulsory gender budgeting for over a decade. It is one of only a few countries that collect and analyze gender-disaggregated data to assess the effectiveness of its approach.  


十几年来,韩国一 直在法律上强制实施性别预算。韩国是少数几个收集和分析按性别分列的数据、以评估性别预算效果的国家之一。 


Building on this, parental leave provisions have been expanded, and investments made in childcare. Steps have been taken to help mothers return to work after an absence, alongside efforts to make workplaces more family-friendly. These priorities have been part of the IMF’s discussions with the government for several years. 


韩国在此基础上扩 大了育婴假的范围,增加了儿童保育方面的投资。韩国也采取了措施,帮助母亲们在离职一段时间后重返工作,同时还努力使工作场所对家庭更加友好。过去几年,基金组织已与韩国政府就上述优先事项等问题开展了讨论。  


Most recently, President Moon has honored his pledge for women to take up 30 percent of his Cabinet. The government is planning other crucial steps. These include making 175 employment centers available to women seeking work, and letting mothers work reduced hours for an extended period. 


最近,文在寅总统 履行了承诺,使女性在他内阁中占到了30%的席位。政府正在 规划其他重要措施,包括为求职女性提供175个就业中心,以及 让母亲能够在更长时间缩短工时。 


Further efforts are needed, including to strengthen childcare, flexible working, and job search and training support. These can pay big dividends. 


还需要开展更多工 作,这包括完善儿童保育、灵活工作时间以及求职培训援助。这些努力都将带来显著成效。 


An IMF study looked at the potential impact of reforming secondary earner taxation, increasing childcare benefits, and boosting tax incentives for part-time work. It estimated that these reforms could help increase female labor force participation by 8 percentage points over the medium term – reducing the gap between male and female participation by one-third. 


基金组织的一项研 究分析了第二收入者征税改革、增加育儿福利和加强非全时工作税收激励措施的潜在影响。这项研究估计,这些改革可帮助在中期内使女性劳动力参与率提高 8个百分点,从而把 男女参与率之间的差距缩小三分之一。 


I also know the importance of family-friendly working practices from my own personal experience. 


另外,我也有亲身 经历,知道支持家庭的工作做法的重要性。 


I was about to be made partner international law firm Baker McKenzie when I became a new mother. To care for my son, I changed my working hours, and took Wednesday afternoons off. This did not resonate well with some male partners – but I was determined to do it. Still, it delayed my conversion to partner by a year. 


在即将成为国际律 师事务所Baker McKenzie的合伙人时,我初 为人母。为了照顾儿子,我改变了工作时间,每个星期三下午都不工作。我的男同事们对此并不欢迎,但我仍决心这样做。然而,我因此多等了一年才成为合伙人。 


II. Culture 



Indeed, as much as can be achieved through policies, it is critical to address social norms that inhibit women. 


此外,我们还必须 着手改变约束女性的社会规范,其作用可能不亚于政策的作用。 


There are even areas where progress can be made not only without undermining cultural identities – but by affirming them. Consider your national flag. The Yin-Yang circle in the middle of Taegukgi symbolizes that achieving harmony requires both women and men to play their part. 


在一些领域,要取 得进展不仅不能削弱文化认同,反而应该是肯定文化认同。贵国的国旗就是一个例子。太极旗的中央是阴阳合一,象征为了实现和谐,女性和男性需要同时发挥作用。 


Think, first, of the mothers. Amy Chua’s book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, prompted some heated debate, but an underlying observation resonates. That is the amount of time spent by mothers to educate their children at home, often at the expense of paid employment. Improving public education can support changing social attitudes to help more women combine family and work. 


首先让我们想想母 亲们。蔡美儿所著的《虎妈战歌》一书引发了一些激烈讨论,但其中一个基本的观察引起了人们的共鸣,这就是母亲们放弃了有偿劳动,把大量时间用于在家中教育子女。通过改善公共教育,可有助于改变社会态度,帮助更多女 性把家庭和事业结合起来。 


Women’s attitudes themselves are shifting. The percentage of Korean women wanting to keep their jobs regardless of marriage and childbirth increased from 17 percent in 1988 to 56 percent by 2009. 


女性自身的态度正 在变化。结婚生育后仍希望继续工作的韩国女性,其比重从1988年的17%增加到了2009年的56%。 


Moreover, one concern that has been raised about having more women in the workforce is that it could reduce fertility – which would hinder efforts to address demographic change. 


此外,更多女性参 与工作所引起的一个担心是,这会降低生育率,从而妨碍应对人口变化的努力。 


Such concerns are misplaced. Nordic countries have shown that high female labor force participation and fertility can go hand-in-hand if aided by supportive policies.  


这样的担心是多余 的。北欧国家显示,如果辅以支持性政策,女性的高劳动力参与率和高生育率可以并存。 


Another country facing demographic change – Japan – has shown that the likelihood of having a second child increases if men are more active in the household.  


日本也是一个面临 人口变化的国家,该国显示,如果男子在家务中发挥更积极的作用,生第二胎的可能性将增加。 


This brings me to the role of fathers. Despite progress, take-up of paternity leave only recently exceeded 5 percent. Many fathers do not take it because they fear ramifications at work. 


在这里,我要谈谈 父亲们的作用。尽管有所进展,但休陪产假的父亲人数只是在最近才超过5%。很多父亲之所以 不休陪产假,是因为担心对工作产生不良影响。 


Consider the experience of this 34-year old father: 


以下这个34岁的父亲的经历是 一个例子:


“If I hadn’t taken leave”, he said, “I would have been up for promotion. But I was bypassed. I expect to be at a disadvantage in pay and promotion.”  


他说:“如果我没有休陪产 假,本来能够获得晋升。但别人得到了这个机会。我想自己在加薪升职中会处于较为不利的地位。” 


If men are to play a more active role in family life, corporate culture needs to change. It also needs to change for the sake of women, which brings me to my second point – how to empower women to lead in the corporate sector. 


要使男子在家庭生 活中发挥更为积极的作用,就需要改变企业文化。而为了女性,也需要这么做。这是我接下来谈的第二点,如何通过赋予女性权能,让她们成为商界领袖。 


2. Empowering Women in Korea’s Corporations and Financial Sector 

2、韩国的企业和金 融业中的女性赋权 


Let me begin with an IMF study of 2 million firms in 34 European countries. It found that adding one more woman onto the corporate board can help increase the return on assets by between 8 and 13 basis points. 


首先我要提到基金 组织对34个欧洲国家的 200万家企业开展的一 项研究。这项研究发现,在公司董事会中每增加一名女性,可提高企业资产收益率8至13个基点。 


In creative and hi-tech sectors, the return on assets can be as much as 30 basis points. With the Pangyo Creative Economy Valley under development, this finding should resonate. 


在创意和高科技部 门,资产收益率可以提高多达30个基点。随着板桥 技术园的发展,这一发现应能得到印证。 


Beyond profits, gender-diverse boards can also improve corporate governance. Forthcoming IMF staff research also finds that a greater share of women on bank and banking supervision boards could be associated with greater bank stability. In particular, banks with a higher share of women are associated with higher capital buffers and lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios. 


性别多样化的董事 会不仅能提高利润,而且能够改善企业治理。即将发表的基金组织工作人员研究也发现,银行董事会和银行监管委员会中的女性董事占比提高会随之提高银行的稳健性。特别是,那些有较大女性占 比的银行通常拥有更多的资本缓冲和较低的不良贷款率。 


So how can we get more women onto corporate boards in a country like Korea – where just 14 of the 100 largest listed companies have a female director? 


在韩国100家最大的上市公司 中,仅有14家公司有女性董事 。那么,在这样一个国家中,我们怎样才能让更多女性进入公司董事会? 


The family-friendly working practices that I mentioned earlier are absolute pre-requisites, but what else is needed? I do not claim to have all the answers – but let me share some thoughts based on three personal experiences. 


我前面提到的支持 家庭的工作做法绝对是一个先决条件,但除此之外,还需要做些什么?我自己并不知道所有答案,但想根据三个亲身经历分享一些看法。


I. Unconscious Bias 



My first story. When I started working at Baker McKenzie in the 1980 s– despite my technical abilities and professional knowledge – there were occasions when external clients assumed I was only there to bring them coffee. 


我的第一个经历是 ,当我在80年代刚到Baker McKenzie律师事务所工作的 时候,尽管我有着很强的技术能力和专业知识,可有时仍有一些外来客户以为我在那儿的唯一工作是给他们端咖啡。 


Today, sexism is more subtle – but, conscious or not, bias remains. When we talk of unconscious bias, we include the overall corporate culture, but also preconceptions about what breeds success. 


如今,性别歧视更 加微妙,但无论是否有意识,偏见依然存在。我们所谓的无意识偏见,既包括总体的企业文化,也包括对成功来源的先入之见。 


It is important to bring unconscious biases out into the open, so they can be recognized, discussed, and addressed. 


必须使无意识的偏 见暴露出来,以便可以识别这些偏见,对其进行讨论并加以解决。


Options like “fast-tracking” promising women up the career ladder – so they can develop the right experience, skills and networks for senior management. Withholding names from selection committees can also pay dividends – “blind hiring” practices helped the Australian Bureau of Statistics increase the share of female senior executives from 21 to 43 percent. 


像“快速提拔”有发展前途的女性 ,从而使其能够积累适当的经验、技能和人脉来获得高级管理职位。不让选举委员会知晓候选人的姓名,这也是一个好办法。“盲聘”做法帮助澳大利亚 统计局把女性高级管理人员所占的比例从21%提高到43%。 


Addressing bias is a critical step. Another tool, quotas, can also help – as my second story illustrates. 


消除偏见是关键的 一步。另一个工具是性别配额,我的第二个经历显示,这个办法也会有所帮助。 


II. Quotas 



I used to think that quotas were unnecessary. Then I realized that, without them, it would take 5 generations until 30 percent of partners at my law firm were women. So I was converted to quotas, at least as a short-term solution. 


我曾以为性别配额 并不必要,但后来意识到,如果不这么做,在我工作的律师事务所需要五代人的时间,才能使女性合伙人的比例达到30%。因此我转为支持 性别配额,至少视其为短期的解决办法。 


As the debate around corporate quotas continues in Korea, there is much international experience to draw from. In recent years, we have seen several countries adopt corporate quotas. India did so in 2010, and the share of women on boards rose from 5 to 13 percent. In Malaysia, quotas helped double the proportion of female board members at the largest companies.  


韩国仍在就企业中 的性别配额问题进行讨论,而在这方面有很多国际经验可供借鉴。 近年来,我们看到 一些国家采用了企业性别配额的做法。印度在2010年采用了这一做法 ,使女性在董事会中的比重从5%增加到13%。在马来西亚,性 别配额让最大企业的女性董事所占比例翻了一番。 


Mandatory legal quotas have also been introduced in parts of Europe. In Norway, over five years they supported a fourfold increase in the proportion of women on boards. 


欧洲某些国家也在 法律上强制规定了性别配额。在挪威,性别配额在五年时间中使女性董事所占比例增加了三倍。 


We must also acknowledge that international experience with mandated corporate quotas has not been universally successful. Some quotas have been poorly implemented, lacked incentives, or had insufficient buy-in. Quotas cannot be viewed in isolation, but only as part of a wider package of measures. 


我们也必须认识到 ,关于强制性企业性别配额的国际经验并非总能成功。一些性别配额执行不当,缺乏激励机制,或是并未得到充分的认可。不能孤立地使用性别配额,而是应将其作为一套更广泛措施的一部分。 


III. Mentoring 



My final story is about mentorship. I was fortunate enough to have a role model, a mentor from whom I learned. She taught me how to “dress,” “address,” and “redress”: 


我的最后一个经历 是关于导师制。我很庆幸我有一个榜样,一个可效仿的导师。她教我如何“展现自我”(dress)、“清晰表述”(address)、“坚守应对”(redress): 


Dressing is presenting yourself in a way that made others take you seriously; 


•“展现自我”是以赢得他人重视 的方式展现自我; 


Addressing is making yourself understood; and, 


•“清晰表述”是是清晰表达自己 的观点; 


Redressing is resolving conflicts and sticking up for your convictions. 


• “坚守应对”是解决冲突并坚持 自己的信念。 


For me, these lessons have stood the test of time. 


对我而言,这些教 诲经受住了时间的考验。 


Male champions of women’s empowerment can also play a crucial role. They can instill in their colleagues their understanding that gender diversity is critical for organizations to thrive – for the benefit of men and women alike. 


拥护赋予女性权能 的男性支持者们也可以发挥关键作用。这些男性可以向同事们传播自己的这一认识:性别多样化对于一个组织的成功至关重要,对男女双方都有利。 


Aside from my convictions, I can assure you that gender equality is taken very seriously at the IMF. 


性别平等不仅是我 本人的信念,我也确定地告诉你们,性别平等在基金组织同样受到很大重视。 


The IMF is committed to promoting gender equality because – as I said – empowering women is critical for economic growth and prosperity. 


基金组织坚定致力 于促进性别平等,这是因为,正如我所说,赋予女性权能对于经济的增长与繁荣都至关重要。 


So we are developing a body of research on the economics of gender – analyzing the macroeconomic effects, but also identifying the main obstacles and polices. 


因此,我们正在设 立一个研究性别经济学的部门,这个部门不仅将分析宏观经济的影响,还将找出主要的阻碍因素和应对政策。 


We are taking gender considerations into account in our country programs and economic health-checks. 


我们也将性别问题 纳入我们的国家规划和经济健康检查工作中。 


Many of our programs include gender-related provisions – most recently in Egypt, Jordan, and Niger. 


我们在很多规划中 都包括了与性别有关的条款,在最近埃及、约旦和尼日尔的规划中都是如此。 


As part of our economic health-checks, we have conducted 27 country and regional pilots that looked closely at this topic. 


作为经济健康状况 检查的一部分,我们已开展了27个国家和地区的试 点项目,对这一问题进行了仔细探讨。 


For several years, we have also discussed gender-related issues with the Korean authorities. We remain committed to this dialogue as you identify and implement further measures to promote gender equity. 


若干年来,我们也 与韩国当局讨论了性别平等的有关问题。随着贵国确定并推出进一步措施来促进性别平等,基金组织仍坚定致力于就此开展对话。 


In sum, the IMF will continue to bring women’s empowerment into the economic mainstream, because unleashing the potential of women is a global priority. This is especially the case in Korea. The time for action is now. 


总而言之,基金组 织将继续把赋予女性权能纳入主要的经济工作之中,因为发挥女性的潜力是全球的当务之急,这在韩国尤其如此。现在正是采取行动的时候。 


In the words of Ko Un, in his poem Arrows: “Let’s all soar together, body and soul!” 


用韩国诗人高银在 《箭矢》一诗中的话说:“让我们一起高飞, 身体和灵魂!” 


I have shared some of my own experiences, but I do not claim to have all the answers. I look forward to hearing your views. 


我分享了自己的一 些经历,但并不知道所有答案。我期待倾听大家的看法。 


Thank you – Gamsahamnida.


谢谢大家, Gamsahamnida。

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